Evaluation project for the Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services
Partner: Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services, Kent
Beneficiary institution: European Commission, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities
Period: January – October 2010
The objectives of the study Evaluation of ESF support for enhancing access to the labor market and the social inclusion of migrants and ethnic minorities has been to:
1. Assess the European Social Fund’s support for enhancing access to the labor market and the social inclusion of migrants and ethnic minorities;
2. Provide guidelines for the Member States on the implementation of ESF Operational Programs in the 2007-2013 programming period in order to target beneficiaries more effectively;
3. Identify effective means of tackling barriers to the social and labor market integration of migrants and ethnic minorities.
The evaluation focuses on ESF interventions in the 2000-2006 programming period, but also examines the implementation of ESF Operational Programs (OPs) to date in the new 2007-2013 period. The evaluation research takes into account activities supported through the EQUAL Community Initiative.
Through case studies and country reports at Member State level and through a thematic report addressing Roma integration issues, the evaluation aims to provide a comparative analysis between the Member States with regard to the main challenges in enhancing access to the labor market and the social inclusion of migrants and ethnic minorities.
15 EU countries have been included in the research in order to ensure a representative balance. CVEK covered activities of the project in Slovakia, conducted interviews with both policy makers and representatives of beneficiary organizations and prepared overview of ESF and EQUAL in Slovakia and intervention logic of ESF and EQUAL in Slovakia. CVEK analysed treatment of migrants, ethnic, and national minorities in selected ESF programs and in EQUAL, coordination of the HP EqOp implementation, roles of various entities in the Monitoring process, roles of various entities in HP EqOp monitoring, and bringed examples of good practices.
In 2010 CVEK co-organized already 9th edition of the V4 Summer School at the Willa Decius in Krakow. The 9th edition of the Visegrad Summer School brought together 50 young Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Slovak students, as well as some students from other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The program consisted of lectures, panel debates and seminars on issues and challenges relevant to the Visegrad Group region, the European Union and beyond. School offered many opportunities to learn about each other and start an international co-operation between the people and the countries.
The program of the ninth edition of the Visegrad Summer School included debates on current political, cultural and social challenges in the global and European perspective, e.g. extremism, migration issues, Eastern Partnership, environmental protection, energy security policy, climate crisis and also regional and Euroatlantic cooperation. Global poverty, stabilizing missions at Afghanistan, Balkans and Africa have been discussed as well. An important part of the democracy section were lectures on the integration role of countries and a presentation of the regional responsibility for global problems. Students applied the theoretical knowledge in practical activities during workshops – they developed, political, social and cultural projects that aimed at establishing collaboration between them and their countries. On the weekend participants visited borderlands of Malopolska region and students also attended artistic events and learned about the culture of Krakow.
The organizers provided:
– educational programme and materials
– special events
– accommodation and board
– travel costs to/from/in Krakow
– their own insurance
– registration fee of 75 EURO
Call for applications for the Visegrad Summer School opened on 1 March 2010,
the deadline for applications was 31 March 2010.
Slovakia has been represented on the 9th edition of the Summer School by 9 participants:
Edita Bezdičková, FSS, Masaryk University, Brno
Pavol Kobárik, ESF, Masaryk University, Brno
Katarína Lokšová, FMV, University of Economics, Prague
Michal Polgár, FMV, University of Economics, Bratislava
Lívia Cseresová, FSEV, Comenius Univesity, Bratislava
Mária Nicolauvová, FF, Comenius University, Bratislava
Jana Hrčková, PF, Charles University Karlova, Prague
Jana Kočová, PF, Trnava University, Trnava
Katarína Klingová, FSEV, Comenius University, Bratislava
Realization of the project: IOM Bratislava
Period: September – December 2009
IOM Bratislava worked on the project “Migration in the Slovak republic after the entry into the EU (2004-2008) – analysis of migration trends and public attitudes toward issues of migration and integration of migrants”.
The aim of the project has been to gather complex and updated information on developments, trends, and impacts of international migration after the entry of the Slovak republic into the EU.
Project has been divided into two research components. The first one, conducted by Dr. Boris Divínsky, was focused on legal and illegal migration, labor migration, emigration and naturalization within the period 2004 – 2008. The second one was run by the CVEK under the leadership of Dr. Michal Vašečka and was focused on realization of the representative public opinion survey “Attitudes of the public toward migrants and toward international migration”. CVEK conducted also focus groups and semi-structured interviews in order to gather also qualitative information.
Project realization: Institute of Public Policy, FSES UK
Partner: Slovak Governance Institute
Period: January – December 2009
Project High quality research – precondition for a successful integration has been supported by the European Fund for Integration of Third Countries Nationals, part of the Program “Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows”.
Main goal of the project was to increase quality of integration policies. Project aimed to compare integration policies in various countries of the EU; to prepare set of new indicators for evaluation of integration policies; to analyze particular bodies involved in integration policies; to analyze perception of migrants on integration policies; and to assess strengths and weaknesses of integration policies in Slovakia.
In order to achieve goals of the project researchers conducted nine activities that were interconnected:
1. Comparative research of integration policies in other countries with a focus on managed migration;
2. Proposal of new indicators of integration policies in order to improve evaluation and further development of integration policies;
3. Analysis of activities of particular key-players within integration policies;
4. Qualitative research focused on experiences of legal migrants with integration in the Slovakia;
5. Analysis of integration level of particular groups of legal migrants;
6. Summary analysis of weak and strong dimensions of integration policies in Slovakia;
7. Research in the sphere of relevance and interconnections between integration policies and state policy in the sphere of social inclusion focused on autochtonous minorities and marginalized groups;
8. Publication with all research findings and with recommendations how to improve integration policies;
9. Seminar on research findings in the sphere of integration policy.
Altogether 16 authors has been working on the final publication of the project “Integration of migrants – do we know what we want? Policies of integration in the Slovak republic in a comparative perspective“:
The book has been published by the Institute of Public Policy of the Comenius Universityat the end of 2009, with a kind support of the European Fund for Integration of Third Countries Nationals.
Donor: European Fund for Integration of Third Countries Nationals; part of the Program Solidarity and Managment of Migration Flows; Ministry of Interior of Slovakia
Partner: Milan Šimečka Foundation
Period: April – December 2009
Center for the Research of Ethnicity and Culture in partnership with Milan Šimečka Foundation conducted since April 2009 a project Integration of children of third countries nationals into the educational system of Slovakia. Project builds up on positive policies realized in education sphere in the process of integration of children of third countries nationals. At the same time, project enriches previous policies by innovative methods that aim to secure their successful integration into the society.
The most important outcomes of the project:
1. Research of barriers of integration of these children into the education system;
2. Creation and experimental testing of innovative tools of integration;
3. Opening of a public discussion on problems of children of migrants in Slovakia;
4. Opening of a public discussion on needs of educational policies changes.
Set of practical policy recommendations for educational policies and integration tools aimed to be the result of the project. Outcomes of the project can help public policy makers to change and improve legislation in order to secure more effective integration of children from third countries. Results of the research can be utilized also by teachers in the form of manuals, techniques, and activities applied in the process of education within the classroom, school, and local community.
Period: January 2009 – December 2009
Also during 2009 CVEK continued, together with an initiativePeople against Racism, to collect and analyze data on racism and xenophobia in Slovakia. Racism and Xenophobia European Information Network (RAXEN) was established by European Monitoring Center of Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) that was changed into the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2007. The main objective of FRA is to offer broad audience in the EU-25 objective, reliable and comparable data on issues of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism in the territory of member states and to contribute to formulation of effective measures designed to fight racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism.
RAXEN Network consists of 25 national groups, one group operating in each member state. National groups are partners of FRA providing needed information and data on national level. Center for Research of Ethnicity and Culture together with People Against Racism form national group for Slovakia. Particular national groups carry out different tasks specified by FRA, collect information and statistical data about various activities in the area of fight against racism and xenophobia, work out general (general situation in the country) as well as specific reports (employment, education, housing, etc.).
On June, 10, 2010 European Agency for Fundamental Rights released FRA Annual Report on Fundamental Rights in 2009 that CVEK collaborated on.
In 2009 CVEK co-organized again V4 Summer School at the Willa Decius in Krakow. The 8th edition of the Visegrad Summer School brought a two-week educational program which provided an interdisciplinary learning space for 47 young Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Slovak students, and for their peers from Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Kirgyzstan and Kosovo. The program consisted of lectures, panel debates and seminars on issues and challenges relevant to the Visegrad Group region, the European Union and beyond. School offered many opportunities to learn about each other and start an international co-operation between the people and the countries.
The program of the 8th edition of the Visegrad Summer School included debates on current political, cultural and social challenges in the global and European perspective, e.g. global economic crisis, Euro adoption, energy security, deficiencies of democracy, gender equality, gender sensitivity, or media development. Students applied the theoretical knowledge in practical activities. During workshops they developed political and social projects that aimed at establishing collaboration between them and their countries. Students took part in art projects as well – film and photo workshops. An important part of the cultural section were lectures on the culture – forming role of cities and a presentation of the cities competing for the title of the European Capital of Culture. On the weekend participants took part in study visits to Auschwitz-Birkenau and Kazimierz, the former Jewish district in Krakow. They also attended artistic events to learn about the culture of Cracow and visited the ethnographical museum of the Małopolska region.
Dr. Michal Vašečka lectured on the Summer School again, in 2009 on “Europeisation of civil society“.
Slovakia has been represented on the 8th edition of the Summer School by 10 participants:
Martina Horánska, ESF, Masaryk University, Brno
Nora Križanová, Central European University, Skalica
Marta Latináková, Bates College, Lewiston ME
Jarmila Mikušová, BISLA, Bratislava
Zuzana Nemethová, FSES, Comenius University, Bratislava
Zuzana Nováková, FSES, Comenius University, Bratislava
Ondrej Schütz, FSS, Masaryk University, Brno
Viera Slováková, University of Economics, Bratislava
Barbora Strapatá, University of Economics, Praha
Zuzana Tóthová, FSS, Masaryk Uversity, Brno
Donor: Block grant for NGOs from the financial mechanism of the EHP,Norwegian financial mechanism, and from the state budget of the Slovak Republic
Period: September 2008 – August 2009
Since September 2008 CVEK worked on theoretical and empirical project focused on possibilities and conditions of multicultural theory application in the Slovak context. Deriving from the both multicultural theory and practice, project is based upon pilot research how to study, analyze, and understand new ethnic, religious, and race minorities in Slovakia.
The first, theoretical phase of the project, identifies potential and barriers of applying multiculturalism in the process of integration of new minorities (migrants). The second, empirical phase desires to test limits of integration and maps specificities of the Slovak context in the process of multicultural policies implementation. Methodology applied in the project allows CVEK to identify expectations of members of new minorities in the process of integration into the institutions of majority.
Project attempted to enrich existing researchers in this field and proposes a complex theoretical-empirical model of the further research of the issue. Research brought new data on minorities and contributed to the process of further public policy formation in the field of new minorities integration.
An international research project carried out on a representative sample of 100 schools
Partner: Roma Education Fund, Budapest
Period: June 2008 – August 2009
The research has been carried out in co-operation with the Roma Education Fund. The purpose of this study was to analyze the overrepresentation of Roma in special education in Slovakia. Following a common structure and methodology developed by the Roma Education Fund in consultation with ERRC andEUMAP to produce comparable data from a set of three country studies (i.e., Czech Republic, Serbia, and Slovakia), this study consisted of two main parts.
The first part of the study addressed five research objectives common to all three country studies:
1. Estimating the number of Romani pupils enrolled in special education;
2. Mapping the educational options of Romani pupils from compact, segregated Romani settlements;
3. Comparing the standard and reduced curricula used in mainstream and special education, respectively;
4. Juxtaposing the opportunities for further education and employment accessible to graduates of special education with those available to graduates of mainstream education; and
5. Conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing special and mainstream education from the standpoint of state expenditures
Whereas the first part of the study was structured in such a way as to maximize comparability across the three country studies, the study’s second part focused on features of the education system in Slovakia which distinguish it from its counterparts in the Czech Republic and Serbia. Topics addressed in the second part of the study included:
1. The structure of enrollment incentives offered to special schools and Romani parents;
2. The complex of institutions with a role in maintaining the status quo in relation to special education; and
3. The mechanisms used for assessment and reassessment of scholastic competence; as well as
4. Recommendations directed at reversing the overrepresentation of Roma in special education in Slovakia.
Project of Villa Decius and CVEK prepared for Polish NGOs
Partner: Willa Decius Krakow
Period: October 2008 – September 2009
Antidiscrimination Training Academy is a complex program for people working or cooperating with Polish NGOs that deal with the problem of human rights. The Academy included an intensive training in the field of human rights protection. The sessions of the Academy took place since October 2008 till September 2009 in form of conferences. Participants worked intensively in two groups: gender workshop and cultural sensitivity workshop. The Inauguration of the Academy took place on November 2008.
The Antidiscrimination Training Academy is an original complex program designed by the Villa Decius Association and CVEK for people working or cooperating with Polish NGOs. The Academy offers intensive training and presentations of the contemporary concepts and good practices in the field of human right protection. The offer is addressed mainly to the people working for NGOs active in the human rights field, but with a regard to the needs applicants from governmental and local government institutions that provide help for discriminated groups will be accepted too. Since October 2008 until September 2009 the first edition of the Academy has been organized with an aim to provide professional training for coaches and actual knowledge from the chosen issues in the field of human rights. Participants have been trained in two workgroups: gender and cultural sensitivity, which included also the problems of minorities.
The course consisted of 10 intensive conferences lasting for several days, with 340 hours of education and 250 hours of training in coaching. After completing the series of workshops, lectures, discussions and practical assignments the participants worked in pairs on a program of their own diploma training and following that they leaded workshops in their own companies (June 2009). Experienced trainers, supervisors of the Academy, graded the work of the graduates and provided recommendations and notes for planning the next development. After the summer break students have met at an evaluation session where they received their diplomas (September 2009).
Partners: Forum Institute, Šamorín
Research Institute of Slovaks in Hungary, Békescaba
Institute of Slavic and East-European studies, Charles University, Prague
Period: January 2008 – October 2008
Forum Institute, in cooperation with the Research Institute of Slovaks in Hungary, Institute of Slavic and East-European studies at the Charles University, and CVEK has organized series of 3 international workshops on “Effective participation of minorities on decision-making processes”. The aim of the project has been to foster dialogue on new approaches how to manage the ethnically diverse societies of Central and Eastern Europe.
The first workshop was held on April 10-11, 2008, in Šamorín. One of the purposes was to clarify the basic concept of minority participation. A presentation of four minority participation models followed, in the form of case studies. The presented models were based on Central European Hungarian and Slovak minorities, respectively on minorities in the Baltic countries. Elena Kriglerová took part on the workshop on behalf of the CVEK.
The second workshop of the series was held on May 15-16, 2008, in Budapest, at the House of Hungarian Culture (Magyar Kultúra Háza). This time, the focus was set on the southern part of the Eastern-Central European region. There were many detailed presentations about the situation in Ukraine – first of all about the Hungarian minority, followed by the topic of ethnic relations on the Krym Peninsula and the ethnic structure of the multinational Ukraine. Dr. Michal Vašečka participated on the workshop representing CVEK.
The third workshop took place on September 29-30, 2008 with experts from Serbia, Kosova, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, and Slovakia. Dr. Jarmila Lajčáková represented CVEK on the workshop.
Donor: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)
Period: January 2008 – December 2008
Racism and Xenophobia European Information Network (RAXEN) was established by European Monitoring Center of Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) that was changed into the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2007. The main objective of FRA is to offer broad audience in the EU-25 objective, reliable and comparable data on issues of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism in the territory of member states and to contribute to formulation of effective measures designed to fight racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism.
RAXEN Network consists of 25 national groups, one group operating in each member state. National groups are partners of FRA providing needed information and data on national level. Center for Research of Ethnicity and Culture together with People Against Racism form national group for Slovakia. Particular national groups carry out different tasks specified by FRA, collect information and statistical data about various activities in the area of fight against racism and xenophobia, work out general (general situation in the country) as well as specific reports (employment, education, housing, etc.)
CVEK has been participating on cross-European project “Intercultural Navigators” that took place in 12 European countries (Slovakia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Great Britain, Ukraine). The project aimed at development of an international network of young and diverse influencers (Intercultural Navigators) and equipped them with leadership skills and intercultural competencies, which will enable their communities to fully benefit from opportunities presented by globalization and minimize the risk of exclusion and marginalization.
Within the project a diverse groups of next generation leaders have been selected. These young influencers will be helped to develop cultural literacy indispensable in building intercultural trust. Their leadership and communication skills will be developed so that they can contribute both to mainstream debate and to constructive action – helping others understand and communicate better with people from other cultures.
Project has been focused on following issues:
1. Diaspora communities and their relationships with home and receiving societies,
2. Unprecedented movement of people between new and old EU member states,
3. Globally mobile professionals and intercultural competency in global business,
4. Mainstreaming intercultural understanding in policy making at a all levels,
5. Linking leaders from “fortress” Europe, Africa and other regions,
6. Participation at all society levels as a positive measure addressing roots of radicalization.
In the scope of the project a multi-country study on youth political mobilization and radicalization in Europe – the European Survey on Youth Mobilization (ESYM) – is being conducted. The study is co-ordinated by the University of St. Andrews. In Slovakia as many as 300 semi-structured interviews were conducted by CVEK. These interviews became, together with interviews from other countries, a core for the Intercultural Navigation Manual. Project should be understood as a pilot study for an even more ambitious European Union survey.
CVEK research on political mobilization and radicalization of the European Youth (ESYM) has been coordinated by Mgr. Peter Hlohinec. Six students of social sciences from the Comenius University participated on the research as researchers:
Pavol Bellan (FF UK, Sociology)
Bc. Táňa Grauzelová (FSEV UK, Social Anthropology)
Bc. Naďa Horňáková (FSEV UK, Social Anthropology)
Peter Krištofič (FF UK, Sociology)
Lukáš Pikulík (FF UK, Sociology)
Bc. Gabriela Tydlitátová (FF UK, Sociology)
CVEK co-organized V4 Summer School at the Willa Decius in Krakow this year again. The Visegrad Summer School is a two-week educational program which provides an interdisciplinary learning space for young Czech, Hungarian, Polish and Slovak students, and for their peers from other Central and Eastern European countries. The program consists of lectures, panel debates and seminars on issues and challenges relevant to the Visegrad Group region, the European Union and beyond.
The topics cover current social, economic, political and cultural issues, such as multiculturalism, economic transition in Central and Eastern European countries, relations between the EU and other countries, and European and national cultural identity and heritage. School gives many opportunities to learn about each other and start an international co-operation between the people and the countries.
The program of the seventh edition of the Visegrad Summer School included debates on actual challenges for European Union and political situation in Russia together with its implications for region. Environmental protection, energy security as well as regional and Euroatlantic cooperation were also discussed. The Summer school was aimed especially at graduate students, young researchers and journalists from Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary and some other CEE countries.
Dr. Michal Vašečka lectured on the 7th edition of the Summer School on “Paradigmal changes of multiculturalism in 21st century“.
1. News of CVEK
2. Web page of the Willa Decius
Slovakia has been represented on the 7th edition of the Summer School by 8 participants:
1. Eva Jakubčáninová, Faculty of Humanity Studies, Charles University, Prague
2. Marianna Mišúrová, Comenius University, Bratislava
3. Tina Gyarfášová, Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Brno
4. Matej Kresáč, Faculty of Economics, Masaryk University, Brno
5. Lukáš Makovický, Faculty of Social & Economic Sc., Comenius University, Bratislava
6. Peter Hlohinec, Philosophical Faculty, Comenius University, Bratislava
7. Stanislava Šimurdová, Faculty of Social Science, Aalborg University, Aalborg
8. Zuzana Kostovčíková, Faculty of Arts, Constantin the Philosopher University, Nitra
Period: April 25-26, 2008
This Seminar was organized by the Conference of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) of the Council of Europe in the context of the Slovak chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (November 2008 – May 2008). It should be noted that one of the three priorities of the Slovak chairmanship precisely consists in “promoting a citizens’ Europe” and “in strengthening the participation of civil society in the decision-making process at both national and multi-national levels”.
The main aim of this activity was to facilitate contacts between Slovak NGOs and their counterparts at the European level, in particular the INGOs enjoying participatory status with the Council of Europe. This should make it easier for Slovak NGOs to take part in the activities of the INGOs and the Council of Europe, thus strengthening the role of civil society in Slovakia and increasing the visibility of Slovak NGOs in Europe. At the same time, it should offer them an appropriate institutional framework, thus fostering exchanges and partnerships.
A further aim was to familiarize Slovak NGOs with the Council of Europe’s legal instruments in the fields covered during the conference as well as to raise awareness and understanding among the INGOs on Slovak civil society achievements and challenges.
It was proposed that the main topics focus on democracy/citizenship/participation through social issues, especially violence against women, including domestic violence.
Objectives of the Seminar:
1. To support Slovak NGOs and learn from their experience;
2. To compare the Slovak legislation regarding NGOs and Slovak consultation mechanisms between NGOs and public authorities with the European standards and practice and to foster relations between NGOs and public authorities;
3. To foster contact and co-operation between Slovak NGOs and INGOs enjoying participatory status with the Council of Europe;
4. To familiarize Slovak NGOs with the Council of Europe’s activities, including campaigns and legal instruments.
Main groups targeted:
Slovak NGOs and INGOs enjoying participatory status with the Council of Europe.
Partner: Open Society Foundation
Period: January 2008 – April 2009
According to several analyses conducted in Slovakia, education system is still relatively ethnocentric. Integration of autochtonous as well as of the so-called new minorities is so far failing also due to non-effective school system. School curricula do not reflect cultural diversity of Slovakia, school-texts are practically free of information on national and new minorities. This is clearly influencing both chances of integration of other ethnic groups and processes of majority population attitudes formation. Integration into the society is not possible without acceptation of minorities by the majority.
Multicultural education as a topic incorporating issues of cultural diversity into the educational system might be an effective tool for the integration of these minorities. Effective incorporation of the multicultural education into the school system depends, however, on numerous factors that have to be met. One of the most important ones is good knowledge of young people attitudes toward different ethnic and religious groups. Identification of prejudices and stereotypes can help to identify proper form of the multicultural education in order to implement it effectively.
Most important aims of the research have been identification of spheres that multicultural education should be focused on and recommendation of practical steps how to implement it into the educational system. The task of researchers has been to answer research question: “Which spheres should be multicultural education focused on within educational system in order to reflect changed needs of society in relation toward different types of minorities?” Quantitative analyses of attitudes and prejudices of elementary schools students is a result of the study that reflects regional and stratification differences.
Publication with results of the research was presented in the OSF Gallery in Bratislava on April 21, 2009.
International conference in Telč
Donor: International Visegrad Fund
Period: May 29 – June 1, 2008
There is not a single migration; there are multiple migrations – experiences, practices and institutions leading to various forms and consequences of modern trans-state mobility. Conference focused at migrating men, women, and children as subjects through whose acts, experiences and narratives migrations can be grasped. At the same time, state officers, social workers, and migrants´ employers were no less relevant as acting subjects. Multiple experiences and meanings of migrations are negotiated in everyday interactions at state offices, social centers and work places. Mobility or up rootedness is an equivalent state of existence to a settled life; both are co-existent in the ambivalent symbiosis. In the social sciences, the settler’s perspective is being preferred and considered the norm. Organizers of the conference were looking for ways to creatively deal with this ambivalence instead of disregarding it. We see the role of social scientists in attempting to de-construct and falsify politics and practices that are rooted unconsciously in nationalized legal norms and the perspective of the settler.
Organizers aspired to create a lively discussion environment for any scholars who have been active in migration research, not just on the European scale. Keynote speakers brought fresh ideas that were discussed by Ph.D. students and other scholars. We aspired to bring multiple views and by doing this to reinforce critical thinking about migrations in the contemporary world.
Conference has been divided into two parts:
1. Theorizing Migration
This session was focused on theoretical reflections of migration processes and their interpretations. The changes in understanding of what exactly does belong into this realm as well as possible consequences of theoretical thinking about migration policy and migration research were discussed.
2. Researching Migration
Researching migration is a practical as well as epistemological and political issue. The session posed several research methods in order to articulate the possibilities of different approaches. Special emphasis was put on the vitality of the interdisciplinary approach in studying migration and on demonstrations of innovative research approaches. A reviewed volume of the conference papers is being published in English language.
Program of the conference:
Csaba Szaló: Transnational Migrations: Cross-Border Ties, Homes, and Theories,
Jaanika Kingumets: Journey on Forefront: Diversifying Perceptions on Time and Space in International Migration
Radka Klvaňová: Conceptualizing Inclusion/Exclusion of Migrants in a Transnational Perspective: Ways of Belonging and Non-belonging in a Transnational Social Field
Any Correia Freitas and Philippe Lacour: Reconsidering the “Discoursive Turn” in Social Sciences and Immigration Research
Václav Štětka: Imaginary Homelands: Diasporic Media Spaces and Consumption Practices
Lydia Morris: Managing Migration: Civic Stratification and Migrants´ Rights
Alice Szczepaniková: The Practice of Everyday Depoliticization: Relations of Power and Gendered Performances in NGO assistance to Refugees
Mojgan Rahbari: The Marginalized Integration Accounts of Foreign-trained Professional Migrants in Canada: an Analysis of Structural and Institutional Barriers to Integration
Heikki Kerkkanen: Cultural Governmentality in Finnish Integration Policy
Graeme Hugo: Circular Migration and Development: An Asia-Pacific Perspective
Damir Josipovič: Statistical Adaptation to Migration Data: The Post-socialist Perspective
Michal Růžička: Roma Migrations in Post-socialist Czecho-Slovakia
Stefan Rother: “Transnational Political Spaces”: Political Activism of Philippine Labor Migrants in Hong Kong
Wojciech Janicki: New European Post-national Society: Questioning Internal-international Migration Dichotomy
Survey of the best practices of minority protection in Central Europe
Institute for Minority Rights – EURAC, Bolzano;
Institute for Ethnic Studies, Ljubljana;
Institute for Social and European Studies, Budapest;
Corvinius University, Budapest.
Period: January 2008 – April 2009
The aim of the project has been to identify best practices of minority protection, while at the same time studying under which conditions such practices can function and under which circumstances the application of certain measures is not recommendable. This goal was reached by comparatively studying the real situation of autochthonous minorities in certain key areas, taking into consideration the respective social, cultural, historical, political and economic context. The situation in Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, Slovakia and Romania has been studied.
Main focus has been placed on the impact that the implementation of provisions for the protection of minorities have had on the interethnic living together, the mutual trust, the functioning of institutions and the interstate relations. This is shedding light on which impact an adequate minority protection system can have on the internal and external stability, economic prosperity and the lived cultural diversity within a state.
Donor: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)
Period: January 2007 – December 2007
Racism and Xenophobia European Information Network (RAXEN) was established by the European Monitoring Center of Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) that later has been changed into the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2007. The main objective of the FRA is to offer broad audience in the EU-25 objective, reliable and comparable data on issues of racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism in the territory of member states and to contribute to formulation of effective measures designed to fight racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism. RAXEN Network consists of 25 national groups, one group operating in each member state. National groups are partners of FRA providing needed information and data on national level.
Center for Research of Ethnicity and Culture together with People Against Racism form national group for Slovakia. Particular national groups carry out different tasks specified by FRA, collect information and statistical data about various activities in the area of fight against racism and xenophobia, work out general (general situation in the country) as well as specific reports (employment, education, housing, etc.)
Outputs in 2007:
1. National Data Collection Report aimed at five main areas of discrimination (legislation, education, housing, employment, racial violence). This report as well includes a database of organizations, their activities and publications dealing with discrimination, racism and xenophobia. Annual report on situation in the area of racism and xenophobia in the Slovak Republic and further information material mapping respective area in 2007.
2. RAXEN Bulletin: Bi-monthly newsletter on crucial news in racism and discrimination in Slovakia.
EC Project VC/ 2006/ 0309
Partner: Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn
Period: January 2007 – December 2007
Project has been dealing with issues of discrimination, segregation, and marginalization of ethnic minorities that are in stark conflict with the cornerstone values of the EU as embedded in acquis communautaire. Yet, social and economic disintegration remains an everyday challenge to millions of members of ethnic minorities living in the EU today. Ethnic integration challenges appear in a variety of forms, from unequal access to health care and social services to unemployment, underemployment, and substandard remuneration of individuals belonging to different ethnic minorities.
Labor market segmentation is a particularly worrisome issue, since equal labor market opportunities are a cornerstone for achieving the key objectives of the European Employment Strategy, as defined by full employment, increased productivity and enhanced quality of work, and strengthened social cohesion and inclusion. Therefore, it is imperative for the European society to strengthen labor market integration of ethnic minorities. To this end, a large number of legislative acts, policies, and local actions have been implemented to date.
The overriding objective of the study on the social and labor market integration of ethnic minorities in Europe was to provide the High Level Group on the social and labor market integration of minorities (HLG) and the European Commission (EC) with
1. an expert analysis of the labor market situation for relevant ethnic minorities;
2. identification and description of the barriers relevant ethnic minorities face in the labor market and actual and potential policies aiming at overcoming these barriers;
3. policy evaluation including identification of best policy and business conduct practices;
4. policy recommendations concerning overcoming the barriers ethnic minorities face in European labor markets to support the High Level Group in formulating its recommendations to the EU Commission.
In the first part of the study the team provided the contextual framework describing the labor market situation of ethnic minorities in the EU member states. Experts documented to what extent, different ethnic minorities, such as Roma in Slovakia, Muslims in Western Europe, or the Russian speaking population in Latvia, experience discrimination and segregation in the labor market. An inclusive understanding of ethnic minority such that the relevant minorities in Europe are covered was adopted. At the same time, to facilitate cross-country comparability, more refined definitions of ethnic minorities has been investigated.
The second part of the report identified the external and, whenever possible, internal barriers that members of ethnic minorities face in the labor market. Experts utilized different datasets available through IZA’s own Data Service Centre and micro-econometric techniques. The key focus in this section was to identify labor market discrimination of ethnic minorities.
In the third part of the report different public policies and private initiatives on labor market integration of ethnic minorities were evaluated, distinguishing three levels of policy implementation: (i) the EU level, (ii) the country level, (iii) and the local level. In the comparative analytical framework, the key evaluation dimensions that are proposed to be employed include relevancy, efficacy, timing, fairness, and feasibility.
The last part concluded with policy implications and recommendations on how to improve labor market integration of ethnic minorities in the EU member states. This part was predominantly draw on the insights of the renowned international economic and policy experts in the IZA team.