The present report intends to shed some light on the practices of employing Ukrainian nationals in Slovakia in the recent period of 2013-2017. Attention is focused on emerging trends and employment patterns among Ukrainians working in low skilled professions. The report is based on desk research using existing studies and statistical data, plus qualitative interviews conducted with Ukrainian nationals living in Slovakia, with a representative of the labour inspectorate, the National Union of Employers, Employment Institute, the Institute of Economic and Social Studies and an intergovernmental organization providing support services to migrants.
The research, as well as previous work in the field of violations of migrant workers’ labour rights, points to exploitation as an understated yet widespread issue in Slovakia. The report uses the concept of labour exploitation as defined by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). According to FRA3, at least four aspects need to be taken into consideration when speaking about labour exploitation of migrant workers:
1. social policies
2. freedom of movement
3. migration policies
4. criminal justice and the rights of victims of crime